長風萬里迎秋雁

發表日期: 2015-10-04
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2013nian_dao_hua_jiang_yan_ya_gong_yuan_du_dong_de_dou_yan_lin_da_li_she_.jpg
2013年到華江雁鴨公園度冬的豆雁/林大利 攝影

「北風初起易水寒,北風再起吹江干,北風三起 白雁來,寒氣直薄朱崖山。」由於身上富有脂肪及羽 毛,比其他鳥類更耐低溫,雁鴨往往是最晚啟程的候 鳥。隨著晚秋的雁鴨陸續抵達原本寂寥平淡的埤塘、 河口和湖泊水面,也意味著寒冷的冬日即將到來。然而,雁鴨年復一年往返繁殖地與度冬的同時,鴨群的 雜聲卻逐漸寂寥。

近年來,許多研究報告指出,東亞 - 澳洲遷徙 線上的候鳥數量逐漸下降 [1-4]。東亞-澳洲遷徙路 線的候鳥共有 728 種,其中 98 種在紅皮書中的保 育等級列為受脅物種 (Threatened) 和近危物種 (Near Threatened),約占 14% [3],其中,水鳥中約有 62% 的 物種的族群量顯著下降 [1],長達 24 年間的水鳥監測指 出,遷徙族群大幅下降 79% [4]

復旦大學生命科學學院教授馬志軍博士長期研究 長江及中國沿海的水鳥生態,2014 年在科學期刊【科學】發表,報導中國沿海濕地因為農業及工業的開發 所需,沿著海岸築起了綿延近三萬公里的人工海岸, 長風萬里迎秋雁 長度幾乎涵蓋中國所管轄的海岸,比萬里長城還長, 因而稱為「新長城」[5]。中國近年的經濟發展主要仰 賴沿海地區,60% 的國內生產毛額來自沿海 13% 的土地,也意味著海岸面臨嚴重的開發壓力。這樣的建築工事導致中國沿海的溼地大幅流失,對於遷徙水鳥是 相當巨大的衝擊。在全球的鳥類遷徙線當中,東亞 - 澳洲遷徙線中所涵蓋的受脅水鳥的比例最高 (19%) [6], 「新長城」威脅了全球超過四分之一的水鳥。

日本方面,依據環境省生物多樣性中心 2014 年 的雁鴨調查結果 ( 第 46 回ガンカモ類の生息調查結 果 ),天鵝類的數量為 69,683 隻,約下降 3%;雁類 的數量為 211,945 隻,約增加 11%;鴨類的數量為 1,577,940 隻,約下降 3%,總計 1,859,568 隻。日本的雁鴨調查的總數,自 2000 年至 2014 年的總數量約 在 17 萬至 21 萬之間,近三年的總數偏低。

位於宮城縣的伊豆沼 ( いずぬま izumema),是日本數一數二的候鳥度冬地。根據「宮城縣伊豆沼內沼 自然保護基金會」所管理的「宮城縣伊豆沼內沼自然保護中心」的計算,2014 年 11 月 5 日至年底,共記 錄 6 萬 5 千隻以上的白額雁,應該會在隔年二月逐漸 北返。白額雁在 1971 年獲日本政府指定為國家天然 紀念物,日本環境廳認定之保育等級為近危級。1970 年時,僅記錄 3,700 隻的白額雁,1997 年時則為 3 萬 4千隻,今年已經記錄到6萬5千隻,族群量大幅增加。

臺灣方面,台北市野鳥學會與臺北市政府動物 保護處長期監測華江橋雁鴨公園的雁鴨狀況。2000- 2001 的冬季,華江橋曾經計數突破萬隻的小水鴨,然 而,萬鴨翻飛的盛況已成歷史,如今數量僅約高峰期 的十分之一。依據 2013 年台北市野雁保護區暨華江 雁鴨自然公園鳥類調查環境監測成果報告書,2011 年 至2013年冬季的小水鴨數量分別僅存2,090隻、1,547 隻和 1,097 隻,狀況大不如前。

全國的狀況也是這樣嗎?透過中華民 國野鳥學會資料庫的賞鳥資料,整 理 1984-2012 年小水鴨的數 量,發現 1990 年之後, 小水鴨數量逐漸上升,1996 年全國小水鴨的數量可超過五萬隻,但之後卻 逐步下降。依據臺灣新年數鳥嘉年華 2014 年度報告, 全國的水鴨數量為 8,452 隻次。雖然賞鳥資料的紀錄 較不周全,容易產生偏差,但是小水鴨數量如此大幅 的巨變,應非單純的偏差所致,而是生物與環境劣化 的重要警訊。

依據 2014 年的臺灣鳥類名錄,目前臺澎金馬有 確切紀錄的雁鴨鳥類共有 41 種 ( 出乎意料的多吧! ), 最新成員是 2013 年的長尾鴨。綜合以上的發現與感 念,臺灣新年數鳥嘉年華的工作團隊決定挑選「小水 鴨」作為 2015 年的主題鳥種。彰顯東亞地區度冬雁 鴨數量大幅下降的警訊,邀請全國各地 夥伴一同走出戶外,關注我們生活 中不可或缺的環境與雁鴨。


2015yan_ya_wen_xian_.jpg

*詳細各樣區數據,請下載<2015NYBC年度報告>。
*更多精采內文,請下載<歷年NYBC年度報告>。
*想替生態保育盡一份心力,歡迎加入我們,定期捐款、贊助或技術支援。
*想一起數鳥,歡迎報名參加(請點選 報名鳥鄉民)。
 

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